Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are using acoustic levitation of droplets to further pharmaceuticals. By placing two precisely aligned speakers opposite one another, a standing wave can be created. At nodes along the standing wave, there is no net transfer of energy, but the acoustic pressure is sufficient to cancel the effect of gravity, allowing light objects like droplets to levitate. This is why, in the video, you see the droplets are placed at equally spaced distances and if one is slightly off the node, it vibrates noticeably. The benefit of this levitation to pharmaceutical research comes at the molecular level; drugs formed from solutions kept in a solid container are likely to be crystalline in structure and thus less efficiently absorbed by the body. If the drug can instead be kept in an amorphous state by evaporating the solution without a container, then the resulting drug may be effective at a lower dosage than its crystalline counterpart. (Video credit: Argonne National Laboratory, via Laughing Squid, submitted by @__pj)
“There is a theory which states that if ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.
There is another which states that this has already happened.”
—Douglas Adams, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe
What would Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland be without the Cheshire Cat, the trial, the Duchess’s baby or the Mad Hatter’s tea party? Look at the original story that the author told Alice Liddell and her two sisters one day during a boat trip near Oxford, though, and you’ll find that these famous characters and scenes are missing from the text.
As I embarked on my DPhil investigating Victorian literature, I wanted to know what inspired these later additions. The critical literature focused mainly on Freudian interpretations of the book as a wild descent into the dark world of the subconscious. There was no detailed analysis of the added scenes, but from the mass of literary papers, one stood out: in 1984 Helena Pycior of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee had linked the trial of the Knave of Hearts with a Victorian book on algebra. Given the author’s day job, it was somewhat surprising to find few other reviews of his work from a mathematical perspective. Carroll was a pseudonym: his real name was Charles Dodgson, and he was a mathematician at Christ Church College, Oxford.
The 19th century was a turbulent time for mathematics, with many new and controversial concepts, like imaginary numbers, becoming widely accepted in the mathematical community. Putting Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland in this context, it becomes clear that Dodgson, a stubbornly conservative mathematician, used some of the missing scenes to satirise these radical new ideas…
The Beatles on comedy show Morecambe and Wise. The combined wit of everyone is killing me.
"We’re the ones with the big, fat, hairy ‘eads." -John
I do apologize. But do I regret it? Never. Those cheesy bites were delicious and Easter is long gone.
I’m going to assume you meant 5-hydroxy-cyclopentene because it’s not possible to have a hydroxy substituent on the 6th carbon of the chain when there are only 5 carbons. But provided with enough heat, the above photo displays the potential reaction. While the product vaguely looks like two turtles, Alan Rickman would not be satisfied. Alan Rickman is never satisfied.